This article reflects a Biblical interpretation of the design and purpose of marriage and also addresses the issues of engagement, divorce, separation, remarriage, and death as they are dealt with in Scripture.
Design & Purpose
Marriage is a covenant created by God between one man and one woman in which the two are united and become one flesh.
Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. -Genesis 2:24
Marriage is a picture of Christ and the church. Husbands and wives are given different, yet complimentary roles for the purpose of illustrating this relationship.
Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit in everything to their husbands. Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish. -Ephesians 5:22-27
Marriage is not required for all, but it is encouraged for many.
To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is good for them to remain single as I am. But if they cannot exercise self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to burn with passion. -1 Corinthians 7:8-9
Believers should seek a believing spouse and should not enter into relationship with unbelievers on the grounds that their lives do not share a common foundation in Christ.
Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers. For what partnership has righteousness with lawlessness? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what portion does a believer share with an unbeliever? -2 Corinthians 6:14-15
Marriage is to be honored and carried out according to the commands of God. A couple seeking marriage should make a commitment to uphold the honor of the covenant by remaining pure until marriage.
Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the marriage bed be undefiled, for God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterous. -Hebrews 13:4
Divorce is not the revealed will of God, nor was it intended to be preferable in the design of the covenant of marriage. When asked why Moses allowed for a certificate of divorce to be written, Jesus reiterates that this reality only comes to pass because of the hardness of people's hearts. He goes on to say that it was not so from the beginning (Matthew 19:8) and that man should not separate what God has joined together.
And Pharisees came up and in order to test him asked, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?” He answered them, “What did Moses command you?” They said, “Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce and to send her away.” And Jesus said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment. But from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male and female.’ ‘Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.” -Mark 10:2-9
God hates divorce because covenant-breaking is contrary to His nature. In divorce, the relationship of Christ to the church is reflected to be less than faithful, which is not true. Jesus is always faithful to his church and never divorces.
“For the man who does not love his wife but divorces her, says the LORD, the God of Israel, covers his garment with violence, says the LORD of hosts. So guard yourselves in your spirit, and do not be faithless.” -Malachi 2:16
Divorce is not even commanded in the context of a marriage which was entered into or later made to be unequally-yoked.
“…if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he should not divorce her. If any woman has a husband who is an unbeliever, and he consents to live with her, she should not divorce him.” -1 Corinthians 7:12-13
In the case in which a separation does happen, the call is towards reconciliation and not divorce or remarriage.
To the married I give this charge (not I, but the Lord): the wife should not separate from her husband (but if she does, she should remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband), and the husband should not divorce his wife. -1 Corinthians 7:10-11
On the issue of remarriage, our elders hold to a limited range of diversity on position due to specific interpretations of Scripture. It is also important to note that while remarriage may be viewed as sinful in many circumstances, grace should be extended to those who have been involved and our counsel is not towards additional divorce to restore a previous marriage.
POSITION 1: ONLY IN DEATH
Jesus teaches that remarriage after divorce brings with it potential additional sin in the life of the one who divorces and the one previously unmarried who agrees to marry one already divorced.
And he said to them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her, and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.” -Mark 10:11-12
“Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery. -Luke 16:18
There is only one circumstance in Scripture in which remarriage is explicitly allowed, that being in the case of the death of a spouse. This leads us to give only one exception clause in our marriage vows: "'til death do us part.”
Or do you not know, brothers—for I am speaking to those who know the law—that the law is binding on a person only as long as he lives? For a married woman is bound by law to her husband while he lives, but if her husband dies she is released from the law of marriage. -Romans 7:1-3
It should also be noted that remarriage is in no way required in this instance (1 Corinthians 7:40), but it is certainly permitted in the context of another believer.
A wife is bound to her husband as long as he lives. But if her husband dies, she is free to be married to whom she wishes, only in the Lord. -1 Corinthians 7:39
POSITION 2: ALSO IN THE CASE OF ADULTERY OR DESERTION
Jesus gives an exception clause for the primarily innocent party in the case of sexual immorality in the context of the marriage. (1)
But I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except on the ground of sexual immorality, makes her commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery. -Matthew 5:32
If an unbeliever chooses to separate, the deserted spouse is free to allow them to leave (rather than be called to fight for the marriage forever). (2)
But if the unbelieving partner separates, let it be so. In such cases the brother or sister is not enslaved. God has called you to peace. -1 Corinthians 7:15
POSITION 3: ALSO IN THE CASE OF THOSE WHO WERE PREVIOUSLY UNBELIEVERS
If an unbeliever was previously married and divorced and then later comes to faith, he or she should be free to remarry on the grounds of being a new creation in Christ.
Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. -2 Corinthians 5:17
The covenant of earthly marriage is not binding after the death of a spouse, nor will it be carried over likewise into eternity.
For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. -Matthew 22:23-30
(1) The interpretation of this (and parallel texts) for those who hold position 1 is as follows: Jesus is teaching that the one who divorces is guilty of making their spouse commit adultery if they (the spouse) are remarried...unless the spouse has already committed adultery themselves, in which case they have already made themselves an adulterer. Jesus is not giving the "innocent" party an exception clause to be remarried, but is clarifying the additional sin that will be brought upon the spouse (in addition to them, see Matthew 19:9) if they have not already brought it upon themselves (Piper, "Divorce & Remarriage: A Position Paper,” Reason #11). Jesus goes on to affirm the disciples' concern that this teaching is difficult to receive (Matthew 19:10-12).
(2) The interpretation of this text for those who hold position 1 is that the person who has been wronged is free to separate with the understanding that this circumstance is the call to singleness.